Breast conserving therapy with lumpectomy and radiation usually results in a good to excellent cosmetic result. However, for some patients more advanced surgical techniques are needed to improve cosmetic results. Oncoplastic surgery utilizes techniques to achieve optimal cosmetic results in conjunction with breast- conserving cancer surgery. For smaller defects, the breast surgeon or plastic surgeon can advance adjacent breast tissue flaps into the defect created by the lumpectomy. In larger-breasted patients who need wider areas of breast tissue or even a quadrantectomy in order to excise a cancer with negative margins, the treated breast can be reconfigured and a reduction can be performed on the opposite breast to achieve smaller but symmetric, nicely shaped breasts. For patients with ptotic (drooping) breasts, a lift or mastopexy can be combined with the lumpectomy. For patients requiring a nipple-areolar resection, the nipple-areolar complex can be reconstructed, and a reduction can be performed on the opposite breast to achieve symmetry. Oncoplastic surgery may be performed at the same time as breast-conserving cancer surgery or as a separate procedure.